Enlarged pores are an opening of sebaceous glands in the skin. They are connected with the skin surface through canals, and through this opening sebum is secreted. The role of the sebum is to prevent dry skin. Sebaceous glands are largest on one's face, especially in the T-zone (forehead, nose and cheeks).
Due to the effect of male hormones sebaceous glands grow. The larger the pore the larger is the gland beneath the skin. They appear because of hormonal disorders and (such as polycystic ovaries) oily skin. Generally they appear in puberty and with younger people. After the age of 40 and up they appear as a sign of aging due to the growth of the sebaceous gland. Skin damage caused by sun additionally induces the condition.
It is an aesthetic problem. With certain people they can be significantly accentuated and look like scars. Risk of developing a problematic complexion is enhanced because they accumulate recrement which then induces inflammation, and daily facial hygiene is made difficult because the pores are harder to clean. It is necessary to clean the face multiple times a day, which take a lot of time, and still it is not completely cleansed. Classic mechanical cleansing does not clean the pores well and wounds and scabs appear. Oxygen micro-abrasion, where a strong flush is used to enter the pores and thoroughly empty them, is the most successful cleansing method. The use of classic, or even better laser peeling is advised so that the pores are emptied occasionally. Local retinoids are used as a prevention since they empty the content of the pores.
Enlarged pores cannot be removed completely nor permanently. They can be removed almost completely and for a longer period of time. Results last up to a few months, 6 to 12 months or more. Enlarged pores have a tendency of returning after a certain period, usually after several years. That is why usually one maintenance treatment is advised every 1 to 3 years.
In average 1 to 3 treatments are necessary, although sometimes a few treatments more are needed.
Usually we are dealing with a partially mechanical destruction of a sebaceous gland, so the skin is not left dry. After a certain period of time the sebaceous gland recovers but never to its full size.
Usually, initial results are visible after 30 days and are improved on a daily basis for the following 6 to 9 months when the final result is visible.